350 years ago William Harvey was the first to state that the hearts main purpose was to circulate blood throughout the body. This was in direct contrast to the rest of the world that was in the thought process that the heart was the center for emotions and love while the brain was the main area for circulation. This revelation led to what we now know as evolutionary psychology or the theory of cognitive structure for the survival of the person.
The theory goes that the human body is nothing more than a mass of systems that work together in unison to survive. The evolution came into play as we were being formed, when the body is made to be a collection of different resources for the rest of the body to use at will. This also speaks to the central nervous system, more specifically the brain. This theory contends that the brain is not one organ but a collection of many systems that have evolved over time to become a mass processor for the information that we take in.
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Again it goes back to the natural selection debate at this point where it states that the body is functionally responsible for its own survival because it is acting as several organisms that are designed to fight off the attacks. Now the theory is not complete in this area as there are no real predators of the human being, so many believe that natural selection does not apply. This also brings up the ethics issue because if the theory is taken at face value with no explanation then it is possible to read into it that the sick and old can be picked off to make way for the new.
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The primary function for the evolutionary psychology theory is the study of the brain and how it can function in the manner that it does. While we have come a long way over the years in knowing how the body works, there are still hundreds if not thousands of unanswered questions about brain function. This is why this theory is in place all over the world in medical research practices. If a model of the brain can be determined that helps the medical community to understand the way that it functions it is possible to wipe out disease in many ways.
Many people believe that the brain actually has healing properties on its own. There have been many cases of patients that have severe trauma to many parts of their bodies and go into a coma. After so long they awake and are normal and functioning adults without any kind of ill side effects.