The rapid development and advancement of knowledge and technology has spurred the growth of the world economy. Technological advances have increased production and lowered production costs. Technology has facilitated cross-border transactions in this era of globalization. In the era of globalization, the boundaries of a country are no longer an obstacle in business and financial transactions.
The integration of the world economy has had an impact on increasing trade activities between business actors, whose activities are not only limited to buying and selling goods or services, but more broadly which includes investment activities that produce goods for export and so on.
Trade activities have put national boundaries aside, even one business actor from one country often invests in several countries. Companies that invest in many countries are referred to as multinational companies (multinational companies) having subsidiaries in several countries that produce components for assembly in different countries. Likewise, the franchise business has penetrated to various corners of the country to exploit the world market .
International Business Transactions are essentially international civil law matters related to business activities. Business actors who carry out international business transactions will be exported by national law from two or more countries. One of the fields related to international business transactions is bankruptcy.
The international aspect of bankruptcy will arise if the debtor’s bankruptcy crosses the boundaries of a country. That is, the international aspect of bankruptcy will be seen from the debtor’s assets located or located in two or more countries (A legjobb dolgokon bőgni kell teljes film ingyenes).
Bankruptcy issues are related to international civil law issues if there is a situation where a company has been declared bankrupt in a country and the company has a subsidiary located in another country and established under local law. PT Prudential Life Assurance (Prudential Insurance), PT Asuransi Jiwa Manulife Indonesia, even an actual example in Indonesia is the bankruptcy of a Japanese retail company, Sogo, the bankruptcy decision of the company certainly brings consequences for retail companies that use the name Sogo in Indonesia.
From the Eltörölni Frankot teljes film, it can be seen that a bankrupt company has assets in more than one country or a situation where several creditors are in different countries from other countries where the bankruptcy process against debtors takes place in a concrete way, the relationship between bankruptcy problems and international civil law lies in how is the enforcement of the bankruptcy decision of foreign courts in a country, for countries where the bankruptcy decision must be implemented legal problems arise
Based on the description above, the problems are:
Does the Indonesian court’s bankruptcy decision also cover debtor’s assets located abroad? or vice versa. Can foreign court bankruptcy decisions reach the debtor’s assets in Indonesia?
How is the regulation of International Aspects in Law Number 37 Year 2004?
Before answering the above problems, it is important to know in advance the principles or principles of bankruptcy law which are generally accepted or adopted by countries in the world.
According to Jono, there are two important principles or principles regarding the issue of whether foreign bankruptcy decisions regarding bankruptcy are also recognized or have legal consequences within the territory of the State itself (Jono. 2008: p. 189). The two principles are:
1. Principle of Universality (Unite Universalite Exterritorialite de la faillite)
According to this principle, a bankruptcy decision pronounced in a country has legal consequences anywhere where the person declared bankrupt has property. With this principle, a debtor who is declared bankrupt will give legal consequences to assets wherever the assets are located.
2. Territoriality Principle (Pluralite de faillites, territorialite de la faillite)
According to this principle, bankruptcy only concerns parts of property located within the territory of the State where the bankruptcy decision is pronounced. With this principle, it is possible for a debtor to be declared bankrupt several times.
Talking about bankruptcy decisions decided by foreign courts to be executed in a country, in principle it will be related to the question of whether foreign court decisions can be executed in a country. In general it can be said that most legal systems adopted by many countries do not allow their courts to execute decisions of foreign courts.
The era of globalization is a condition that shows that this world is getting smaller. We can no longer hide the plight of a country Miután elbuktunk teljes film magyarul. This is due to the advancement of information technology. Any incident experienced by a country. In a short time will be known by other countries. in a short time good or bad news in a country has gone global. Globalization makes it possible to become an interactive process that develops a common world culture so that it will give rise to a universal culture or civilization.
in these schools the teachers who teach not only come from Toxikoma teljes film ingyen within the country but there are also teachers who come from the countries concerned or from the country of investment. Indonesian teachers who will be involved must have the standards they apply, for example mastery of the English language is the main requirement, in addition to teaching skills and good mastery of the material. The screening tests are rigorous and tiered. For that, whoever succeeds in graduating and finally being able to teach at that place, of course, will get an honorarium with international standards
The globalization of education is carried out to answer the market’s need for a quality workforce that is increasingly stringent. With the globalization of education, it is hoped that Indonesian workers can compete in the world market. Moreover, with the implementation of free trade, for example within the scope of ASEAN countries, education in Indonesia must produce graduates who are ready to work so as not to become “slaves” in their own country. This model of education also enables students to acquire complete and detailed technical skills, ranging from foreign languages, computers, the internet to socializing with foreigners and others. The positive sides of globalization in the field of education include: first, interactive multimedia teaching, technological advances due to the rapid flow of globalization, changing teaching patterns in the world of education. Classical teaching turned into technology-based teaching. Second, Ease of Accessing Information: In the world of education, technology resulting from soaring globalization such as the internet can help students access various information and knowledge. Third, CTL (contextual teaching learning) learning: actively engages students in classroom lessons. students are required to be active in the teaching-learning process. In the past, the teacher who held the authority of the class gave a lecture. While students only listen and take notes. But now students have the right to express their ideas through presentations. In addition, students can not only memorize but also be able to find concepts and facts on their own.
Thank God, Drs. Toto S. Atho’illah Head of SMPIT NURUL ISLAM KREMBUNG had the opportunity to visit ADNI Islamic School Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ADNI Islamic School is one of the Islamic schools that has an international reputation. This school manages education ranging from hadonah (a nursery for children under three years old) to high school. It is led by Ust. Dr. H. Hasni Mohammeed who is now an Islamic Education Consultant at the OIC (Organization of Islamic Conferences). ADNI develops multi-language learning, so that its students can
master several languages The Addams Family 2 teljes film.
From the description above, it can be concluded that cross-border transactions are related to bankruptcy law. The problems that arise cannot but must be resolved. For this reason, it is better for changes to the bankruptcy law to think about the issue of cross-border bankruptcy.
For Indonesia, they can choose one of the two options. First, it establishes in its bankruptcy law provisions that accommodate the possibility of bankruptcy decisions of foreign courts to be recognized and implemented by Indonesian courts as long as they meet the regulated requirements. If this alternative is taken, it is better for legislators to refer to the Model law prepared by UNCITRAL.
The second alternative, Indonesia participates in international agreements that are bilateral or multilateral which stipulates bankruptcy decisions from the courts of a country that allow them to be executed in commercial courts and conversely bankruptcy decisions by commercial courts can be executed in foreign courts.